Montezuma Oropendola (Psarocolius montezuma)

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This New World blackbird (Icteridae) has got to be one of my all-time favourite birds to scan. Usually a few times a week (after you have been working with museum collections for a while and every species is not as exciting as it once was) you will open a draw and marvel at nature’s achievements. From its bright yellow tail to its simply fantastic multi-tonal face and beak, this bird is stunning. The joy at this species didn’t stop there, as not only did it look good but it scanned beautifully. It was done and dusted in 5 minutes flat. As someone who spends a large portion of their time 3D scanning birds this is quite the treat.

Montezuma Oropendola in flight.

Montezuma Oropendola in flight.

You can see how beautifully the scan of the Montezuma Oropendola or Great Oropendola came out by checking out our #BeakoftheWeek tweet.

 

References

. 2010. Montezuma Oropendola (Psarocolius montezuma), Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; retrieved from Neotropical Birds Online: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=680076

BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet:Psarocolius montezuma. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/08/2016.

BirdLife International. 2012. Psarocolius montezuma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22724004A39873355. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22724004A39873355.en. Downloaded on 26 August 2016.

Fraga, R. (2016). Montezuma Oropendola (Psarocolius montezuma). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/62242 on 26 August 2016).

Images and Videos

BirdLife International and NatureServe (2014) Bird Species Distribution Maps of the World. 2012. Psarocolius montezuma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1.

Montezuma Oropendola in all its glory is by Doug Janson and is licenesd under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Montezuma Oropendola in flight is by Paulo Philippidis and is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

Montezuma Oropendola nest colony is by Charlesjsharp and is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Oropendola intrigued by song evolution? is by Jerry Oldenettel and is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0.

Audio

Peter Boesman, XC274124. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/274124.

 

The Sickle-billed Vanga (Falculea palliata)

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From the fantastically diverse vanga family (vangidae) the sickle-billed vanga really is sight to behold.  When a species has a bill as distinctive as this you can see why it would be quick to identify on #BeakoftheWeek, and low and behold the bird that the bill belonged to was quickly ascertained in the weekly challenge. Some of the beaks we have had the opportunity to scan at the Natural History Museum collections in Tring are a joy to work with, and this was definitely one of those.

Here is a nice video from the internet bird collection for you to watch to get a feel for what this bird looks like and how it moves.

 

References

BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Falculea palliata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/08/2016.

BirdLife International. 2012. Falculea palliata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22708041A39344831. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22708041A39344831.en. Downloaded on 25 August 2016.

Yamagishi, S. & Nakamura, M. (2016). Sickle-billed Vanga (Falculea palliata). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/60562 on 25 August 2016).

Images and Videos

BirdLife International and NatureServe (2014) Bird Species Distribution Maps of the World. 2012. Falculea palliata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1

ian_hempstead, IBC1195731. Accessible at hbw.com/ibc/1195731.

Keulemans’ Sickle-billed vanga by John Gerrard Keulemans is licensed Public Domain Mark 1.0.

Sickle-billed vanga by Cédric de Foucault is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

Audio

Hans Matheve, XC155300. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/155300.

The Secretarybird (Sagittarius serpentarius)

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I say this far too frequently for it to warrant much merit but this is definitely a #favebird. Not only is it a highly skilled snake assassin but it has some rather fanciful “hair” to boot.

This one was solved pretty quickly on #BeakoftheWeek by our resident expert but it was mistaken for quite a few other accipitriformes first.

Check out the video below for a quick run through about this species before diving into a bit more detail.

References

BirdLife International. 2013. Sagittarius serpentarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22696221A49946506. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T22696221A49946506.en. Downloaded on 23 August 2016.

Kemp, A.C., Kirwan, G.M., Christie, D.A. & Marks, J.S. (2016). Secretarybird (Sagittarius serpentarius). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.).Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved fromhttp://www.hbw.com/node/53186 on 23 August 2016).

Images and Videos

BirdLife International and NatureServe (2014) Bird Species Distribution Maps of the World. 2013. Sagittarius serpentarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1.

Fuertes’ Secretarybird by Louis Agassiz Fuertes is licensed under Public Domain Mark 1.0.

Nesting Secretarybirds by Peter Dowley is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

Secretarybird by Ian White is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

Secretarybird with a tasty treat by Jean & Nathalie is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

Planet Doc Full Documentaries. 2015. Secretary Birds of Africa | Nature. [Online]. [23/08/2016]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1UEneEPZO8.

 

The Apostlebird (Struthidea cinerea)

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I couldn’t wait to write a blog about this species, so I have waded straight into it before the dust has even settled from another round of #BeakoftheWeek.

I had the pleasure of working at a research station (Fowlers Gap) in New South Wales a few years ago where there was a group of habituated apostlebirds, which was a fantastic experience. All you had to do was give a whistle and they would fly over and gather around you in the search of tasty treats. This allowed me to get some great photos like the one below.

Apostlebird1

Apostlebird PC Elliot Capp @ornithzoologist

This social, cooperatively breeding passerine species is an Australian mudnester (Corcoracidae) and is one of many species that had the pleasure of first being described by British Ornithologist John Gould (in 1837). Yup, that is the man who pointed out to Charles Darwin that there was something special about those birds he had brought back from the Galapagos. The 12 seminal ground finch species. This subject could cause me to massively go off on a tangent as I am sometimes wanton to do, but I will stick to the apostlebirds this time.

Apostlebirds are the only member of their genus and one of only two species in the Corcoracidae family, along with the white-winged chough (Corcorax melanorhamphos). If you head over to Onezoom you can see what other species they are closely related to.

References

BirdLife International. 2012. Struthidea cinerea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22705385A38386489. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22705385A38386489.en. Downloaded on 29 July 2016.

Rowley, I. & Russell, E. (2016). Apostlebird (Struthidea cinerea). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/60602 on 28 July 2016).

Photos and Videos

BirdLife International and NatureServe (2014) Bird Species Distribution Maps of the World. 2012. Struthidea cinerea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1 – range

Investigative Apostlebird by Benjamint444 is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Audio

Marc Anderson, XC171837. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/171837.

A tale of two bills: the reedhaunters

facebooktwitterReedhaunters 2Our research is reliant upon the Natural History Museum’s ornithological collections- comprising thousands of specimens, amassed over centuries from across the globe, preserved, recorded and studied. The scale and scope of our project means we come into contact with a huge array of this material every day, working across taxa to select individual specimens that act as representatives of a species for our dataset. We handle them, assess their condition, transcribe and photograph their label data, create 3D images of their bills and return them to their place amongst the taxonomically arranged cabinets. This is typical of the way wide-ranging scientific research utilises natural history collections- as ordered snapshots of biological data- but this is only one way of viewing and using them.

Having previously worked on the collections from a historical perspective, where focus more often lies on the individual artefact, studied and prized for its own story, it has been an interesting shift to consider these alternative approaches to collections. There are still occasions, however, when the habit of checking specimen labels, not just for sex and locality data, but also for handwriting, collector’s names and annotations can highlight the biography of a specimen and the species it represents. The reedhaunters, comprising only two species, are a prime example of this.

The specimen of straight-billed reedhaunter (Limnoctites rectirostris) we selected for scanning and landmarking is identified as a type- the specimen from which a species was formally described. The Natural History Museum is keeper of the largest number of ornithological types in the world, stored securely from the main series, and often harbouring their own intriguing stories alongside their immense scientific value.

The labels on this particular specimen revealed that the bird had been collected by none other than Charles Darwin  (1809-1882) during the second voyage of HMS Beagle before being sent to London via the great ornithologist and scientific artist John Gould (1804-1881). It remained one of the only such specimens known to science for a further century. Furthermore, Gould used this specimen in his illustrations for the Zoology of the voyage, a publication that immortalised the collecting activity on the infamous expedition:

John Gould's original illustrations of the Reedhaunters, with Limnoctites rectirostris thought to have been painted directly from the type specimen

John Gould’s original illustrations of the Reedhaunters, with Limnoctites rectirostris thought to have been painted directly from the type specimen

The reedhaunters are marsh-dwelling ovenbirds that were first collected by Darwin whilst in Uruguay in the 1830s. As with many of his ornithological specimens, Darwin sent the prepared skins back to London where John Gould set about studying and identifying them. In so doing, Gould created the new genus Limnornis for the two species, and (particularly interesting for our study) named them individually according to their bill differences, the straight-billed reedhaunter (Limnornis rectirostris) and the curve-billed reedhaunter (Limnornis curvirostris).

Our scans of the curve- and straight- billed reedhaunters, with the former taken from Darwin's actual 19th century specimen

Our scans of the curve-billed and straight- billed reedhaunters, with the latter generated from Darwin’s actual 19th century specimen

Since Gould’s original identification of these species and despite Darwin himself saying he was unable to notice any behavioural differences between the species, they have undergone a number of taxonomic revisions. Increased understanding of differences between the two has seen them widely placed in separate monotypic genera (Limnornis and Limnoctites) but they have still widely been regarded as each other’s closest relative.

Building on this, contemporary research has highlighted that beyond broadly similar plumage, there are more significant differences between these species than their historical treatment would have us believe. With significantly different tail structure, nest building behaviour and egg colouration (L. curvirostris lays greenish-blue eggs, unusual within Furnariidae), additional studies considering distribution and molecular systematics have built a case for their long-held taxonomic relationship to be reconsidered. You can read one such paper in full here.

The whole process of working with historical specimens requires learning from the physical artefact, building on our existing knowledge by combining new methods and insights with this long-ago collected material. So when you log on to MarkMyBird and begin landmarking a bill, spare a thought for where the original specimen came from, at what time, whose hands it has passed through or, indeed, what new light may be shed on its relationships with other species as a result of modern scientific studies.

The Tawny Frogmouth (Podargus strigoides)

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The Tawny Frogmouth (
Podargus strigoides), a #BeakoftheWeek contender from last year,  is a weird and wonderful member of the Podargidae family.

Adult tawny frogmouth, perching in daylight, Queensland

Adult tawny frogmouth, perching in daylight, Queensland

Alongside oilbirds, potoos and some nightjars, frogmouths are part of the wider order of birds known as Caprimulgiformes. Literally meaning ‘goat-milker’ in Latin, this peculiar name is said to have derived from folk tales regarding the feeding habits of the European nightjar, thought to surreptitiously suck the milk from goats in the depths of night!

The Tawny Frogmouth was first described in 1801 by the great English naturalist John Latham who was able to study and name many species of Australian birds from specimens finding their way into England’s growing natural history collections at the turn of the 19th century. In his first great ornithological work ‘A General Synopsis of Birds’ he actually focuses on the unusual bills of these then so-called ‘goatsuckers’ as follows: 
“The bill in this genus is very short, and hooked at the end. Gape vastly wide: on the edges of the upper mandible seven or more stiff bristles.”

Tawny Frogmouth 2

Ornithological painting from the Natural History Musuem’s collection of First Fleet artwork: “Strigoid Goatsucker”, native name “Birreagal”

One of the earliest known images of these birds is part of the collection of artworks created during the First Fleet expedition of the 1780s that saw the formation of the first European colony in Australia. Over half the natural history artworks focus on birds, with a number acting as iconotypes (where an image has survived but the specimen it was taken from (usually the earliest known to science) has not).

This fantastic painting, noted as a type and labelled around its time of creation as depicting a ‘Strigoid Goatsucker, native name Birreagal’ was re-examined in 1970 and confirmed as being detailed enough to accurately identify as Podargus strigoides.

Tawny frogmouths can be found throughout Australia and Tasmania and are known to live in most available habitats- from forests and woodland to heaths and urban areas. Known for their ‘cryptic plumage’, their colouration is variable, but usually consists of greyish upperparts, streaked with barring and vermiculation in blacks and brown with females usually having darker feathers.

Frogmouths have often been confused with owls, seemingly as a result of their nocturnal habits, brilliant camouflage and expressive faces alongside some quirks of historic synonymy. Confusingly, some of the most commonly used names for the Tawny Frogmouth are ‘Birreagal’ and ‘mopoke’, a name also shared by the boobook, a small Australasian owl. The Latin name strigoides itself reiterates this, with strix meaning owl, and oides meaning form. Many resources continue to refer to frogmouths as ‘false owls’ or simply ‘tawny frogmouth owls’ for good measure; there are however a number of key differences between these taxa.

Unlike most owls with their strong legs and curved, pointed bills for killing prey, the tawny frogmouth has an extraordinarily wide, chunky bill ideal for catching and consuming insects. So too, during daylight hours frogmouths tend to perch on branches, utilising their extraordinary camouflage to blend in with their surroundings and avoid detection. Unlike owls, they gather most of their food by ‘pouncing’ from low branches to the ground where they mainly feed on worms, slugs, snails, reptiles, frogs and small mammals.

Tawny Frogmouth family- these birds have some of the most fantastical looking chicks.

Tawny Frogmouth family, New South Wales. Frogmouths have some of the most fantastical looking chicks.

Tawny Frogmouths breed between August and December with both sexes sharing incubation duties. Their nests are fairly loosely formed structures, primarily comprised of sticks and usually creating a platform between forked tree branches to safely raise their young  (having an average clutch size of 2 to 3 eggs) from the ground. These birds have distinctive ‘soft and low’ pitched calls, most commonly sounding like sequential bursts of ‘oom-oom-oom’ sounds, and are known to loudly bill-snap when threatened:


You can find out more about which species are related to the Tawny Frogmouth at OneZoom. For now though, I’ll end this post with a passage from another historical text, The Birds of Australia of 1911, which brilliantly captures the appearance and character of these birds:

‘The Frogmouths are beautifully soft-plumaged birds, with a motley of grey, brown, black and white markings. In the coloration then they resemble the dead bark of the bough on which they sit. To render it still more difficult of detection, the bird does not sit across the bough, but along it, assuming the stiff attitude of a rugged branch broken off short. The eyes are large and adapted to the diminished light of night, the brighter light of day seemingly making them dazed and inert. In both these characters they resemble the Owls. Their disposition is however, much milder, and they can be handled by day without attempting to offer any resistance. They are invaluable insect feeders, and capture their food, Cicadas, Phasmids and Beetles, &c., on the branches of the trees. After swallowing an insect they bring their mandible together with a loud snap, as if in satisfaction over the tit-bit.’

References
Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Podargus strigoides: http://www.hbw.com/species/tawny-frogmouth-podargus-strigoides (accessed April 2016)

White, John, A General Synopsis of Birds: Vol 2, Part 2, London, Printed for Leigh, Sotheby, & Son (1801). Available via Biodiversity Heritage Library:  http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/105238#page/7/mode/1up

The First Fleet Expedition and Collections, Natural History Museum London- Library and Archives Collections: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/art-nature-imaging/collections/first-fleet/art-collection/index.dsml (accessed April 2016)

Australian Museum, Podargus strigoides factsheet: http://australianmuseum.net.au/tawny-frogmouth (accessed March 2016)

Lucas, Arthur Henry Shakspere & Le Souëf, W. H. Dudley, The Birds of Australia,  London, Whitcombe and Tombs Limited (1911). Available via Biodiversity Heritage Library:
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/114952#page/9/mode/1up

Images and Audio

Adult tawny frogmouth, Queensland by Tatters is licensed under CC BY 2.0

“Strigoid Goatsucker”, native name “Birreagal” from the Natural History Museum’s collection of First Fleet artworks, available online: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/art-nature-imaging/collections/first-fleet/art-collection/nathist.dsml?sa=1&lastDisp=gall&notes=true&beginIndex=264&desc=true

Tawny Frogmouth family, New South Wales by tinykettle is licensed under CC BY-NC 3.0

Audio recording of Tawny Frogmouth (Podargus strigoides) call, XC150467, by Marc Anderson. Accessible at: http://www.xeno-canto.org/150467

 

The Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas)

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One of our #BeakoftheWeek nominees was the delightful grey-necked picathartes.

Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas)

Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas)

This rather bizarre-looking passerine is known by a number of other names: the red-headed picathartes, the grey-necked rockfowl and red-headed rockfowl. It is placed in the family Picathartidae along with the white-necked picathartes (Picathartes gymnocephalus).

The grey-necked picathartes lives in the rainforests of equatorial Africa, and tends to feed on invertebrates. It also sometimes feeds on plant matter, such as fruit and flower buds and vertebrates which it plucks from the forest floor and low lying vegetation. It’s IUCN Red List status is vulnerable as despite having a large range, it’s population is thought to be fragmented and declining.

Sadly there are currently no recordings available on xeno-canto, perhaps partly owing to the mostly silent nature of the grey-necked picathartes. It has been reported to sometimes makes a quiet hissing noise that lasts for a couple of seconds. Additionally, on approaching the nest it makes a single or double ‘peep’ call and then a low, repeated ‘ga-a-a’ sound.

This bird breeds during the wet season and can nest twice annually in areas where rainfall is high at two different times of the year. Both males and females contribute to building a cup-shaped nest made from mud, roots and fibrous vegetation, that is placed on cliffs, rocks and caves.

 

References

BirdLife International. 2015.  Picathartes oreas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22708119A85077576. . Downloaded on 05 April 2016.

BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Picathartes oreas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/04/2016.

Thompson, H. (2007). Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/59384 on 7 July 2015).

Images

Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas) taken by Stijn Cooleman is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

The Twelve-Wired Bird of Paradise (Seleucidis melanoleucus)

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This #BeakoftheWeek riddle was one for the performers. An undisputed king of the dancefloor, the twelve-wired bird of paradise is truly a sight to behold.

If you’re struggling to find a signature move then maybe a watch of some birds of paradise will set you on the right path.  Either that or you will find yourself drawn into the black-hole that is watching bird of paradise videos. Perhaps I should add a NSFW tag on this post as these videos can be seriously detrimental to work place productivity, you have been warned.

This passerine species is from the relatively small Paradisaeidae family, consisting of 40 species of truly stunning birds from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Eastern Australia. It is well worth taking a look at every single one of these species as they each have something to offer the casual bird lover. If I had to point you in the direction of just three I would go for Wilson’s Bird of Paradise, the King of Saxony and Lawes’s Parotia.

Sir David Attenborough narrated a fantastic documentary on this family recently (“Paradise Birds”) which included some beautiful drawings of how artists thought the birds displayed their feathers before they were seen in the wild. How wrong they were! These remarkable displays have got to be seen to believed so I strongly encourage you to do some exploring into them yourselves.

Before we get into the nitty-gritty you can see what species are closely related to this one, thanks to OneZoom, below.

References

BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Seleucidis melanoleucus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/03/2016.

BirdLife International. 2012. Seleucidis melanoleucus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22706233A38419655. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22706233A38419655.en. Downloaded on 30 March 2016.

Frith, C. & Frith, D. (2016). Twelve-wired Bird-of-paradise (Seleucidis melanoleucus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/60661 on 29 March 2016).

Images and Videos

BirdLife International and NatureServe (2014) Bird Species Distribution Maps of the World. 2012. Seleucidis melanoleucus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-3

LabofOrnithology. 2012.Twelve-wired Bird-of-Paradise. Online. 30/03/2016. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7E-2bqwvPU.

Male and female twelve-wired birds of paradise by Daniel Giraud Elliot is licensed under Public Domain Mark 1.0.

The Malay Archipelago by Alfred Russell Wallace is licensed under Public Domain Mark 1.0.

Twelve-wired bird of paradise stamp by Post of Indonesia is licensed under Public Domain Mark 1.0.

Two male twelve-wired birds of paradise by Bowdler Sharpe is licensed under Public Domain Mark 1.0.

Audio

Bas van Balen, XC141153. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/141153.

The King Eider (Somateria spectabilis)

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This #BeakoftheWeek challenge allowed us to take a closer look at the king of the seaducks, the King Eider.

This is definitely in my top 5 favourite ducks, not least because it looks like Picasso got creative with its face in the design stage, and it is right up there on my “to see list”.

King Eiders taking flight

King Eiders taking flight

I have gone for a different approach with this blog entry, so that you can click on what you want to read about rather than having to scroll through to find what you are looking for. Hopefully it works a bit better!

The King Eider is from the anatidae family and is one of three members of the genus Somateria, which also includes the spectacled eider and common eider. The common eider is the duck that gives us eiderdown.   When the common eider nests it sheds feathers which are then collected and used to make some extremely comfortable pillows and duvets. If you fancy splashing out, a pillow alone can set you back around $3,000. I know, a bargain. Fortunately goose down pillows are available for far more reasonable prices.

You can check out what other species are closely related to the king eider on OneZoom.

References

BirdLife International. 2012. Somateria spectabilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22680409A40146039. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22680409A40146039.en. Downloaded on 03 February 2016.

Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. (2016). King Eider (Somateria spectabilis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/52915 on 2 February 2016).

Suydam, R. S. 2000. King Eider (Somateria spectabilis). In The Birds of North America, No. 491 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Images and Videos

Arctic Fox by A Neumann is licensed under CC BY-NC 3.0.

Audubon’s Colour Plates by Johan Audubon is licensed under Public Domain Mark 1.0.

BirdLife International and NatureServe (2014) Bird Species Distribution Maps of the World. 2012. Somateria spectabilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-3

Female King Eider by Ómar Runólfsson is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

King Eiders taking flight by Ron Knight is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

groenelantaarn. 2013. King Eiders. Online. 04/02/2016. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QK9qZHa79Do.

Seabird plate from Birds of North America is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

Audio

Andrew Spencer, XC141727. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/141727

The Masked Flowerpiercer (Diglossa cyanea)

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This beautiful member of the Thraupidae (tanager) family proved to be a difficult species to identify on #BeakoftheWeek.

Diglossa cyanea

Diglossa cyanea

This large flowerpiercer is easily identifiable with its striking ultramarine plumage, red eyes and black mask. It is slightly larger than a great tit at 15cm and weighs between 12 and 22.5g.  Females are similar to males but slightly duller, with juveniles duller still and greyish.

The bill of this species is long and slender with a slight upturn and a small hook at the end of its upper mandible.  This small hook is sometimes used to pierce flowers and fruits to get to their internal nutrients, which is where the name “flowerpiercer” comes from.  More often than not it feeds on fruits and berries (particularly Melastomataceae species) and some insects.

This species is highly sociable often found in monospecific groups of up to 30 individuals, as well as in mixed flocks of tanagers, other flowerpiercers, warblers and others.  They are found in cloud forests (usually above 2000m) of North Western South America from the coastal mountains of Northern Venezuella to Northern Bolivia.

This species breeds at varying times across South America, with immatures reported nearly all year round. They lay their eggs in feather-lined open cup nests made of moss, grass and feathers, usually in bushes. Unfortunately no more information is available on the breeding methods of this species. Seems to me like someone should head out on an expedition…

The songs of this species remind me of those of fairy wrens in Australia.  You can have a listen to one singing below, or you can navigate yourself to Xeno Canto for a greater range of flowerpiercer songs.

I have managed to find a few videos of the masked flowerpiercer, and I am rather fond of this one of one feeding some chicks on the internet bird collection.  In fact the IBC has got loads of fantastic videos of this species doing all sorts of things. A nice way to while away five minutes or so.  I couldn’t get those videos into my post, so here is one I found on the ever reliable youtube to whet your appetite.

Good news relating to the status of this species as it is listed as of Least Concern on the IUCN redlist due to its large range size and the belief that its population size does not approach the thresholds for vulnerable.

Last but not least you can check out what species this fellow is most related to on OneZoom by clicking this link.

References

. 2010. Masked Flowerpiercer (Diglossa cyanea), Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; retrieved from Neotropical Birds Online: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=637356.

BirdLife International. 2012. Diglossa cyanea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22723715A40010593. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22723715A40010593.en. Downloaded on 03 December 2015.

Hilty, S. (2011). Masked Flowerpiercer (Diglossa cyanea). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/61776 on 3 December 2015).

Images and videos

Diglossa cyanea by Ken-ichi ueda is licensed under CC BY-NC 3.0.

Nikhil Patwardhan. 2015. Masked Flowerpiercer – Guango Lodge. Online. 03/09/2015. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-nLkj9G_-A.

Audio

Jerome Fischer, XC234634. Licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0. Accessible at: http://www.xeno-canto.org/234634.