The Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas)

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One of our #BeakoftheWeek nominees was the delightful grey-necked picathartes.

Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas)

Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas)

This rather bizarre-looking passerine is known by a number of other names: the red-headed picathartes, the grey-necked rockfowl and red-headed rockfowl. It is placed in the family Picathartidae along with the white-necked picathartes (Picathartes gymnocephalus).

The grey-necked picathartes lives in the rainforests of equatorial Africa, and tends to feed on invertebrates. It also sometimes feeds on plant matter, such as fruit and flower buds and vertebrates which it plucks from the forest floor and low lying vegetation. It’s IUCN Red List status is vulnerable as despite having a large range, it’s population is thought to be fragmented and declining.

Sadly there are currently no recordings available on xeno-canto, perhaps partly owing to the mostly silent nature of the grey-necked picathartes. It has been reported to sometimes makes a quiet hissing noise that lasts for a couple of seconds. Additionally, on approaching the nest it makes a single or double ‘peep’ call and then a low, repeated ‘ga-a-a’ sound.

This bird breeds during the wet season and can nest twice annually in areas where rainfall is high at two different times of the year. Both males and females contribute to building a cup-shaped nest made from mud, roots and fibrous vegetation, that is placed on cliffs, rocks and caves.

 

References

BirdLife International. 2015.  Picathartes oreas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22708119A85077576. . Downloaded on 05 April 2016.

BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Picathartes oreas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/04/2016.

Thompson, H. (2007). Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/59384 on 7 July 2015).

Images

Grey-necked Picathartes (Picathartes oreas) taken by Stijn Cooleman is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

August Updates: A charm of hummingbirds!

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Species level coverage: 42.87%

Species level coverage: 42.87%

Data Collection in Tring: 3D Scanning

We should finish our target of scanning a species from every genus over the coming month. The remaining specimens needed will require us to recalibrate one of our scanners, the MechScan, to a larger scanning volume. The final genera to target will be those whose species are locked away in the Extinct and Endangered collection.

Our main achievement this month has been to finish scanning every available hummingbird genus – the third largest avian family (according to our taxonomy) after tyrant-flycatchers and parrots! One of the species we came across was the tooth-billed hummingbird (Androdon aequatorialis), which as its name suggests has a beak filled with small tooth-like serrations – very different from the other hummingbirds we have scanned so far!

3D scan of a tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides skull

3D scan of a tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides) skull

At present, we have been unable to obtain scans for 60 genera. Most often these have been obscure monotypic genera with only one species that are missing from Tring’s collection. This seems to be the case for neotropical groups like the ovenbirds and tyrant-flycatchers. Other genera we have been unable to scan are those with very ‘fluffy’ species, for example owls, frogmouths and nightjars. Groups such as these pose a particular problem because the feathers around the beak hide important landmarks at the top and sides of the upper mandible which are essential for downstream analyses. Thankfully these problematic groups are in the minority. Even so, we have scanned all available skulls from these groups from the skeleton collection as an alternative.

To date we have scanned:

  • 4284 (42.87%) of species
  • 1913 (91.49%) of genera
  • 2138 (35.72%) of passerines
  • 2143 (53.22%) of non-passerines

Mark My Bird

We have set our launch date for our new crowdsourcing website ‘Mark My Bird’ as the 21st September! Mark My Bird is a web-based landmarking platform that will greatly speed up the process of post-processing our 3D scans. Keep an eye out on our website and twitter feed for updates on how to get involved!
Markmybird 4

Conferences

This month Gavin gave a talk describing the divergence and macroevolutionary pathways that generated the diversity of avian bill morphologies, at the Systematics Association Biennial conference at the University of Oxford Museum of Natural History (26-28th August 2015).

Analysis

Emma spent a week adding to Chris C’s spectrophotometric measurements of bird plumage to improve coverage across the avian radiation, with the aim being to capture the extremes of avian plumage ‘colourspace’.

Twitter and #BeakoftheWeek

We had two new winners in our weekly #BeakoftheWeek competition – well done to Will and Patrick. You can always check out the Beak of the Week leaderboard to see previous winners, beaks and blogs about each species. And remember – you’ve got to be in it to win it!

Lab Updates July 2015

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Data Collection in Tring: 3D Scanning

We are nearing our target of scanning a species from every genus!

Phylogeny showing genus level coverage >87.61%:   Purple=Scanned, Yellow=Not Scanned

Phylogeny showing genus level coverage: 87.61%
Purple=Scanned, Yellow=Not Scanned

Our main focus this month has been to continue with scanning a species from every genus. We have now sampled over 87% of genera – up from 70% in June. One of the families we worked through this month was the long-tailed tits (Aegithalidae), which included the pygmy tit (Psaltria exilis). With a beak length of just under 5.5mm, it has the smallest beak we have scanned to date!

We also spent a couple of days scanning species of genera that are held in the restricted extinct and endangered collections, such as the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), giant ibis (Thaumatibis gigantea) and the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi).

Our large scanner, the R3X, spent a week tackling all the remaining species housed in the large skins collection (minus three cassowary and rhea species).

To date we have scanned:

  • 4197 (42.00%) of species
  • 1832 (87.61%) of genera
  • 2084 (34.93%) of passerines
  • 2110 (52.40%) of non-passerines

Mark My Bird

Thank you very much to everyone who tested out our new data crowdsourcing website and provided such valuable feedback. The final few tweaks are currently being made and (fingers crossed) the website will be going live at the start of September – exciting! Mark My Bird is  a web-based landmarking platform that will greatly speed up the process of post-processing our 3D scans. Keep an eye out on our website and twitter feed for updates on how to get involved!

Conferences

Jen gave a talk at the Craniocervical Systems in Vertebrates conference in Ghent, Belgium (7th-10th July 2015) and bought back some lovely Belgian sweets for us all to enjoy.

Publications

Unrelated to birds entirely, Jen was the third author on a paper about fish (available here). The study was led by University of Bristol PhD student Lucy Brunt, and used an engineering method called Finite Element Analysis (usually used to test the strength of things like bridges and cars) to look at how muscle forces affect jaw development in zebrafish. It’s important for developing animals (humans included!) to use their muscles in order to develop proper joint shapes, and this study showed how cell and joint growth can go wrong if the muscles aren’t working properly.

The beautiful plumage of the himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus )

The beautiful plumage of the himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus)

Analysis

Back in Sheffield, Jen has also been busy landmarking more bird beaks that will eventually be used to build an initial ‘bill morphospace’. In contrast, Chris C has been focusing on bird feathers rather than bills by taking spectrophotometric measurements of bird plumage colouration in an attempt to capture the extremes of avian plumage ‘colourspace’ – very cool! The Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) and the vulturine guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum) are just two of the species that Chris has found which have rather unusual plumage colouration.

Twitter and #BeakoftheWeek

We are nearing 500 followers on twitter! We had four new winners in our weekly #BeakoftheWeek competition – well done to Alison, Beth, TD James and Keith. You can always check out the Beak of the Week leaderboard to see previous winners, beaks and blogs about each species. And remember – you’ve got to be in it to win it!

Images

Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) by Francesco Veronesi is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

The Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus)

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Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus)

Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus)

One of our original #BeakoftheWeek stars, the pink-eared duck is the focus of todays blog.

The pink-eared duck is endemic to Australia and is the only member of the genus Malacorhynchus (meaning ‘soft-beak’) alive today. An extinct species of the genus, the Scarlett’s duck (Malacorhynchys scarletti), has been described from New Zealand (Olson, 1977). It is a rather attractive duck, with striking dark brown and white feathers along its chest and flanks, giving it its alternative name the zebra duck. It has buff-brown feathers underneath its tail, brown wings and back, a white rump, white neck feathers, a white face with grey along the forehead and crown and a dark brown patch surrounding a narrow ring of white feathers around the eye.

As its name suggests, the pink-eared duck also has a small pink patch of feathers behind the eye. This patch of feathers is unusual as it contains carotenoid pigments which are absent from the rest of the order Anseriformes (Thomas et al. 2014). Males and females are almost indistinguishable, with females being slightly smaller than males. Juveniles are duller and browner than the adults.

Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus

Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus)

The large, grey bill of the pink-eared duck has a square tip, soft membranous flaps and spatula-like shape. The highly specialised bill also contains rows of fine, comb-like structures called lamellae. These features make the bill perfectly adapted for sweeping through, and filtering, water and mud for the small crustaceans, insects, algae and seeds on which the bird feeds. Individuals may feed alone, in pairs or in groups (See a video of pink-eared ducks feeding here). When foraging, pink-eared ducks are mostly surface filterers, but have been recorded dabbling, up-ending and vortexing. Vortexing disturbs aquatic organisms as the birds rotate, meaning both individuals benefit from this behaviour.

Pink-eared ducks have a variety of calls, including trilling, twittering, chirruping and a low ‘grunk’ sound.

Breeding pairs are thought to be monogamous and these ducks probably have a long-lasting pair bond. Nests are built in tree hollows, nest boxes or the old-nests of other water birds. The female lays a clutch of 3-11 creamy white eggs and incubates them for around 26 days. The ducklings are covered in brown and white down, with a distinctive brown eyestripe. Their bills already have the membranous flaps of the adult birds. Both adults tend the offspring, and fledging occurs when the ducklings are 45-60 days old.

Distribution map of the Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus)

Distribution map of the Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus)

The pink-eared duck is highly mobile and can be found in temporary, saline or brackish waters, or more permanent waterbodies across inland Australia. Because of its nomadic nature, population size is hard to estimate, but is thought to fall between a few hundred thousand to over one million individuals. The IUCN list the pink-eared duck as least concern. Hunters may shoot a large number of these birds, but only across parts of its range.

 

References

Adams, L. 2013. Scarlett’s duck. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Onlinewww.nzbirdsonline.org.nz

BirdLife International (2012). Malacorhynchus membranaceus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 July 2015.

BirdLife International (2015). Species factsheet:Malacorhynchus membranaceus. Downloaded fromhttp://www.birdlife.org on 02/07/2015.

Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. (2014). Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/52897 on 2 July 2015).

Griffin, P. 2013. Pink-eared duck. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Onlinewww.nzbirdsonline.org.nz

Olson, S.L. (1977). Notes on subfossil Anatidae from New Zealand, including a new species of Pink-eared Duck Malacorhynchus. Emu, 77: 132-135.

Thomas, D.B., McGraw, K.J., Butler, M.W., Carrano, M.T., Madden, O. & James, H.F. (2014). Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds. Proc. R. Soc. B, 281: 20140806. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0806

Images

Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus) taken by Aviceda is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus) taken by Leo is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Distribution map of the Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus membranaceus) by Lars Falkdalen Lindahl is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

 

The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor)

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Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor)

Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor)

One of our earlier stars of #BeakoftheWeek, the little penguin, is under the spotlight in todays blog.

Also known as the little blue penguin or fairy penguin, the little penguin is the smallest member of the penguin family Spheniscidae and the only member of its genus. It is 40-45cm in length and weighs around 1kg, with males being larger than females on average and having slightly thicker beaks. Both sexes have metallic, slate-blue plumage on their upper parts and the majority of the head, and white plumage on their underparts. During its annual moult, the little penguin replaces all its feathers simultaneously and so must stay ashore for about 2 weeks as it is not waterproof during this time.

Penguins are flightless birds and their ancestors’ wings evolved into flippers, making them powerful swimmers. Indeed the genus name of the little penguin, Eudyptula, means “good little diver”. The little penguin is a pursuit hunter, foraging for pelagic shoaling fish (in particular the Australian anchovy (Engraulis australis) and southern garfish (Hyporhamphus melanochir)) and cephalopods (e.g. red arrow squid (Nototodarus gouldi)) in the temperate coastal waters of New Zealand and Southern Australia. It can dive to depths of around 50 metres and normally feeds alone or in small groups. The birds return to their colonies after dark, often collecting in a raft with the same individuals out at sea, before coming to shore together.

Little penguin (Eudyptula minor family exiting burrow

Little penguin (Eudyptula minor) family exiting burrow

Breeding colonies can be found along the entire coastline of New Zealand and parts of Southern Australia, such as Victoria, Western Australia, Tasmania, New South Wales and South Australia. The social structure of the little penguin is monogamous during the breeding season and pairs often return to the same nesting site year after year, although the divorce rate is between 18 and 50%. The nesting burrow is excavated into sandy soil at the base of dunes or cliffs, under thick vegetation, in a natural hollow or even under human-built structures such as houses. The nest is lined with plant material. Across their range, little penguins have been recorded breeding throughout the year and have highly variable laying dates. Interestingly, a recently published study suggests that little penguins may be able to fine-tune their reproductive timing with marine productivity patterns (Afán et al. 2015).

Two eggs is the normal clutch size and these are off-white in colour, sometimes with mottled brown markings or spots. Both parents incubate the eggs over a period of 33-37 days. Once they hatch, the chicks are in an altricial state and so need to be tended to and cared for by the adult birds. Chicks become downy, with dark brown down on their upperparts and paler brown and white down below. Young birds may form small crèches with other juveniles and reach independence at 50-55 days old. The average life expectancy of a breeding adult in the wild is approximately 6.5 years, however some particularly long-lived individuals have reached over 20 years in age, with the record being 25 years and 8 months (Dann et al. 2005).

Little penguins have a variety of vocalisations, ranging from trills and braying sounds to low grunts and deep growls to loud squeals and wailing. A ‘bark’ contact call at sea is given. These penguins are particularly noisy after dark at their colonies, which can cause disturbance to residents that have little penguins nesting under their houses. However in many cases, the little penguins relationship with humans is positive. These charismatic birds draw a great deal of attention at specially organised tourist sites. For example, at the Oamaru Blue Penguin Colony and at the Penguin Parade on Philip Island, tourists can observe the penguins returning to their nests after dusk.  Volunteers and staff also work to conserve the colonies and their habitat, educate visitors, conduct scientific research and monitor the little penguins. Sir David Attenborough does a great job at describing the penguins on Philip Island in this video.

Give Way to Penguins sign located on Granite Island, Victor Harbor, South Australia

Give Way to Penguins sign located on Granite Island, Victor Harbor, South Australia

The little penguin is currently classified under the IUCN red list as ‘Least Concern’ primarily due to its wide range and large population size (unknown, but estimated to be over 1,000,000 individuals in the 1980s). Whilst the population is declining, it is not doing so at a high enough rate to warrant a change of classification to ‘Vulnerable’ at present.

Many colonies are declining as a result of habitat degradation and predation by introduced animals such as domestic dogs, feral cats, stoats (Mustela erminea), ferrets (Mustela furo) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) are a natural predator of the little penguin and are not thought to be a driving factor of population declines. Little penguins are also killed as a result of oil and plastic pollution, road collisions and entanglement in fishing nets.

On the other hand, populations such as those in Wellington Harbour, Banks Peninsula and the Oamaru Blue Penguin Colony, are increasing as a result of predator control and the provision of safe nesting sites in the form of nest boxes.

There are some good tips on how to help reduce the threats little penguins face on the New Zealand Department of Conservation’s website, including instructions for making your own penguin nest box!

 

References

BirdLife International (2012) Eudyptula minor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 July 2015.

BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Eudyptula minor. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/06/2015.

Dann, P., Carron, M., Chambers, B., Chambers, L., Dornom, T., McLaughlin, A., Sharp, B., Talmage, M. E., Thoday, R. & Unthank, S. (2005) Longevity in Little Penguins Eudyptula minorMarine Ornithology , 33(1): 71–72

Flemming, S.A. (2013) Little penguin. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz

Martínez, I., Christie, D.A., Jutglar, F. & Garcia, E.F.J. 2013. Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2013) Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/52468 on 29 June 2015).

Kowalczyk N.D., Chiaradia A., Preston T.J. & Reina R.D. (2015) Fine-scale dietary changes between the breeding and non-breeding diet of a resident seabird. R. Soc. open sci, 2: 140291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.140291

Images

Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) taken by Magnus Kjaergaard is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Little Penguin Family taken by JJ Harrison is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Give way to Penguins taken by Christopher Jansz is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Lab Updates June 2015

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Data Collection in Tring: 3D Scanning

Over the last month, our efforts have switched from scanning species from islands, to scanning a species from every genus.

Phylogeny showing genus level coverage >70%:   Blue=Scanned, Yellow=Not Scanned

Phylogeny showing genus level coverage >70%:  
Blue=Scanned, Yellow=Not Scanned

As a result, we have now 3D scanned at least one species from over 70% genera. This includes scanning nearly every genus from the largest avian family, the tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae). Tyrant flycatchers are one of the trickier species that we scan, as they have fine hooks at the beak tip and feathers around the beak that are particularly bristly and fluffy. Combined, these factors make each scan more noisy and so more difficult to align into the complete 3D model. Now the MechScan has finished with these, we can focus on some of the easier to scan genera and so increase the scanning rate.

Our larger scanner, the R3X, has also been targeting genera, but has additionally completed scanning 100% of the following families: kiwis (Apterygidae), skuas (Stercorariidae) and thick-knees (Burhinidae). We are hoping to take this scanner into the large skins collection during the next stint of data collection, and 3D scan the species with larger beaks that are too big to be housed in the main collection (e.g storks (Ciconiidae), pelicans (Pelecanidae), albatross (Diomedeidae)).

To date we have scanned:

  • 3534 (35.36%) Species
  • 1509 (72.17%) Genera
  • 1814 (30.40%) Passerines
  • 1717 (42.64%) NonPasserines

Mark My Bird

Our crowdsourcing website, Mark My Bird, is in the final stages of beta testing and so will be going live over the next few weeks! Mark My Bird will greatly speed up the process of post-processing our 3D scans. Keep an eye out on our website and twitter feed for updates on how to take part!

Conferences

Talks were given at two conferences this month. Firstly, Gavin and Chris C attended the EU Macro 2015 conference at the University of Copenhagen (14th-16th June), with Chris presenting an ignite talk on the projects initial findings. Chris also attended and presented at Evolution 2015 (26th-30th June) in Guarujá, Brazil. You can watch Chris giving his talk by clicking here.

Tweets

Analysis

Back in Sheffield, Jen has been landmarking more species to go into the projects initial morphospace.

Twitter and #BeakoftheWeek

The team’s twitter account has gained lots of new followers this month, mainly thanks to Gavin’s excellent tweeting during EUMacro, Chris’s conference talks, and our weekly #BeakoftheWeek competition. Elliot has constructed a wonderful new Beak of the Week leaderboard for the website. Here, you can also view images of previous ‘Beaks of the Week’, and links through to blogs about each species.

Other Lab News

Team member, Chris Moody got married. Congratulations Chris and Kathryn!

Team Macrobird making the most of the sparklers at the wedding.

Team Macrobird making the most of the sparklers at the wedding.

The Great Curassow (Crax rubra)

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A very handsome male great curassow (PC Alex Vargas: eol.org)

A very handsome male great curassow

One of our most recent #BeakoftheWeek‘s, the great curassow, is the focus of todays blog.

Curassows belong to the family Cracidae alongside the guans and chachalacas, and are the largest members of this group. The cracids are important seed dispersers in the Neotropical forests where the family is found. The great curassow is the largest cracid and can reach lengths of up to one metre from beak to tail. The male is a very striking bird with predominantly black plumage, a curly crest of feathers on his head, white under-tail coverts and a bright yellow knob (or cere) on his bill. The females exist in three colour morphs; a reddy-brown morph with barred tail, a dark morph and a barred morph. All lack the yellow cere of the male.

The great curassow is predominantly a frugivore, and perhaps unsurprising due to it’s large size, feeds mainly on fruits that have dropped to the forest floor, such as these guavas. Less frequently, it feeds in low branches and shrubs on attached fruits. It has also been reported to occasionally eat invertebrates and even small vertebrates (e.g amphibians) which are gleaned from the surface of leaves and amongst the leaf litter. It forages for food alone, in pairs or in small groups outside the breeding season, but can form large aggregations when trees such as figs are in fruit.

The calls of these birds vary from a low-pitched, deep, booming note to high-pitched peeping notes that are given in alarm. When escaping danger, the great curassow is more likely to run across the forest floor than it is to fly.

Great curassow chick (Victor Burolla, eol.org)

Great curassow chick

A monogamous pair bond is considered the norm in great curassows. Both members of the pair contribute to building the nest, which is placed 4-9 metres off the ground and is a platform made from sticks lined with leaves. The female lays 2 white eggs which take around a month to hatch. The chicks are buff coloured with black and chestnut markings and are precocial, being mobile soon after hatching. The female may carry chicks away from danger in their first few days of life. Great curassows are long-lived and one female in captivity was recorded to live to 24 years of age.

These birds have a wide but fragmented distribution and are found in the dense lowland forests of Southern Mexico, Central America down to Western Colombia and Ecuador. The great curassows’ population has been suspected to have declined rapidly over the past 30 years and was estimated at between 10,000-60,000 individuals in 2009. This species is particularly sensitive to hunting and habitat disturbance from the logging industry and settlement progression, and with population declines predicted to continue, it is listed by the IUCN as vulnerable.

A number of conservation schemes are currently in place with more being planned to reverse the population decline of the great curassow. You can find out more about them on BirdLife International’s website.

 

References

Atkinson, Jon, C. Rodríguez-Flores, C. Soberanes-González, and M.C. Arizmendi. 2012. Great Curassow (Crax rubra), Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; retrieved from Neotropical Birds Online: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=81671

BirdLife International 2012. Crax rubra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 May 2015

BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Crax rubra. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/05/2015

del Hoyo, J. & Kirwan, G.M. (2013). Great Curassow (Crax rubra). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2013). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/53311 on 27 May 2015).

Images

The great curassow (Crax rubra) by Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad Costa Rica (INBio) is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

The great curassow chick (Crax rubra) by Victor Burolla is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0